Professor in communication sciences at the University of Paris Ouest Nanterre la Défense, Michel Arnaud leads research on usages of ICT tools for online learning. Specific domains of interest cover public access to Internet and standards for e-learning. Besides he has achieved studies on privacy and personal data protection in the following projects. The PRODOPER project (2007-2009) financed by the CNRS Communication Sciences Institute (ISCC) has investigated surveillance society. An issue of Hermes revue 53 'Traceability and networks' has been published in April 2009. The IFM (Interoperable Fare Management) project (2008-2010) financed by the European Commission has proposed a privacy model for e-ticketing in public transports with functional specifications to be respected at European level in transport fare pass for personal data protection in agreement with interoperability industrial standards.